Breaches of anti-doping rules

Article 2 of the World Anti-Doping Code defines ten types of anti-doping rule violations in the following cases:

  1. the presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers in a sample of an athlete;
  2. use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or a prohibited method by an athlete;
  3. evading, refusing or failing to submit a sample;
  4. whereabouts failures;
  5. tampering or attempted Tampering with any part of Doping Control;
  6. possession of a prohibited substance or prohibited method;
  7. trafficking or attempted trafficking in any prohibited substance or prohibited method;
  8. administration or attempted administration to any athlete in-competition of any prohibited substance or prohibited method, or administration or attempted administration to any athlete out-of-competition of any prohibited substance or any prohibited method that is prohibited out-of-competition;
  9. complicity;
  10. prohibited association.